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Persebaran Suku di Sumatera Utara, 6 Suku Batak

Daus: Asli mana, Bro?

Ucok: Dari Medan, Bro.

Daus: Bah Horas bah… Sering berenang di Danau Toba, dong!!!.

Para perantau yang ada di Jakarta pasti sering melakukan percakapan ini setiap kenalan dengan orang baru di Jakarta. Hal yang paling mereka ingat tentang Medan adalah “Horas bah!” dan Danau Toba. Kalau Hita Batak sih biasa aja dengan ucapan itu. Karena sering pakai kata Horas dan pasti pernah ke Danau Toba. Tetapi, kebanyakan orang di Jakarta men-generalisasi kalau Medan itu adalah Batak. Pada dasarnya mereka tidak tahu bahwa Medan itu adalah Melayu. Orang Melayu tidak mengucapkan Horas untuk memberi salam melainkan Ahoy.

Selain Melayu, di Sumatera Utara juga terdapat Suku Batak Karo yang jelas-jelas berbeda saat mengucap salam yaitu Mejuah-juah, lain pula dengan Suku Pakpak dari Dairi yang mengucapkan Njuah-juah. Dan ada pula dari Nias yang biasa mengucapkan Ya’ahowu untuk memberi salam.

Tapi kita bangga juga yakan, bikin suku Batak Toba jadi terkenal, meskipun kadang terkenal dengan cara bicara yang kasar. Dari sekian suku yang ada di Sumatera Utara, orang Jakarta lebih mengenal kalau Medan itu adalah Batak (Toba).

Meskipun saya Batak Toba, bukan berarti sering berenang di Danau Toba dan melihat Danau Toba pun belum tentu bisa sekali setahun. Karena saya berasal dari Dairi dan tinggal di Deli Serdang, meskipun saya Batak Toba. Saya sering menjelaskan ini kepada mereka yang penasaran tentang Medan, Batak dan Sumatera Utara. Saya biasanya menjelaskan lewat peta seperti berikut.

Dalam tulisan ini, saya juga mau berbagi tentang perbedaan-perbedaan umum tentang Suku Batak yang terdiri dari 6 suku.

  1. Batak Toba
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Batak Toba merupakan suku yang paling dikenal oleh orang luar Sumut, kebanyakan orang menyebut Batak adalah berarti Batak Toba. Batak Toba berdiam di daerah sekitar Danau Toba, Pulau Samosir, Dataran Tinggi Toba, Silindung, Sekitar Barus dan Sibolga sampai ke daerah pegunungan Bukit Barisan antara Pahae dan Habinsaran di Sumatera Utara. Orang Toba kebanyakan memeluk agama Prostestan, sedikit Katolik dan Islam. Pada zaman dulu mereka mengembangkan kepercayaan animisme yang berorientasi kepada pemujaan pelbegu (roh dari jiwa orang mati).

Dari segi bahasa, Batak Toba dikenal dengan bahasa yang pelafalan vokalnya cukup keras, kental dan tegas. Sehingga sangat mudah dikenali oleh orang sekitar.

  1. Batak Karo

Batak karo adalah salah satu sub-suku bangsa Batak yang berdiam di Dataran Tinggi Karo, Langkat Hulu, Deli Hulu dan sebagian daerah Dairi. Wilayah mereka sekarang termasuk bagian dari Kabupaten Karo. Pada masa sekarang kebanyakan orang Karo sudah memeluk agama Kristen Protestan dan Katolik.

Dari segi bahasa, orang Karo lebih lembut dibandingkan orang Toba, tetapi pelafalannya tetap tegas dan ada perbedaan antara ‘e’ lembut dan ‘e’ kasar dalam pengucapannya.

  1. Batak Simalungun

Batak Simalungun adalah suku bangsa Batak. Mereka mendiami daerah Simalungun yang sekarang menjadi bagian dari Kabupaten Simalungun, dan sebagian lagi di Kotamadya Pematangsiantar. Suku ini pada umumnya, memiliki adat dan kepercayaan yang hampir mirip dengan Batak Toba. Dari segi bahasa, Simalungun sangat lembut dan sopan.

  1. Batak Pakpak

Suku Pakpak berasal dari Tanah Dairi dan menyebar ke beberapa kabupaten lainnya seperti Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat, Sumbulsalam dan Singkil. Saat ini banyak orang Pakpak menganut Agama Islam, Protestan dan Katolik.

Dari segi bahasa,  orang Pakpak mempunyai kemiripan dengan Suku Karo, tetapi dengan kosa-kata yang lebih kasar.

  1. Batak Mandailing
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Nama Mandailing diambil dari kata Mandala dan Holing yang merupakan sebuah wilayah Kerajaan Kalinga yang berdiri sebelum kerajaan sriwijaya. Suku Mandailing ini sendiri mendiami beberapa daerah di Sumatera Utara, yakni, Mandailing Natal, Padang Lawas Utara, Padang Lawas, Labuhanbatu, Tapanuli Selatan, Labuhanbatu Selatan, Labuhanbatu Utara, Batubara, dan di Asahan. Mandailing pada umumnya beragama Islam yang berasal dari Padang, bahkan Bahasa Mandailing juga seperti perpaduan Bahasa Toba dan Bahasa Padang.

  1. Batak Angkola

Nama Angkola itu sendiri merupakan nama yang diambil dari nama sungai batang Angkola atau batang sungai. Nama ini diberi oleh Rajendra Kola penguasa pada saat itu. Suku Angkola sangat mirip dengan Suku Mandailing. Mereka juga banyak menganut Agama Islam.

Berikut adalah peta persebaran Suku Batak di Sumatera Utara

Selain ke 6 Suku Batak tersebut, di Sumatera Utara juga memiliki suku besar lainnya yaitu:

Suku Melayu Langkat

Orang Melayu ini mendiami daerah sepanjang pesisir timur pulau Sumatera, mulai dari daerah Langkat di utara sampai ke Labuhan Batu di selatan. Dari daerah pantai sampai ke perbukitan dekat kaki Pegunungan Bukit Barisan. Mereka bermukim di sekitar Kotamadya Medan, Binjai, Tebingtinggi dan Tanjung Balai. Sebagian lagi di Kabupaten Deli Serdang, Langkat, Asahan dan Labuhan Batu, di Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Untuk membedakan diri dengan kelompok suku bangsa melayu lain mereka lebih suka menyebut kelompoknya sebagai orang Melayu Deli atau Melayu Langkat.

 

Suku Nias

Suku bangsa Nias mendiami Pulau Nias yang terletak di sebelah barat Pulau Sumatera. Bersama dengan beberapa pulau kecil di sekitarnya daerah ini sekarang termasuk ke dalam wilayah Kabupaten Nias, Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Penduduk asli pulau itu menamakan diri mereka Ono Niha, artinya “anak manusia”, dan menyebut pulau mereka Tano Niha, artinya “tanah manusia”.

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